Biotechnology is basically a research oriented field that is combines biology and technology. The concept of biotechnology is is not new but if we talk about modern biotechnology then it is just three decades old. In biotechnology, microorganism performs number of functions to yield a new product from the old one. Different sets of technologies are used in modern biotechnology industry leading to better and improved variety of products. Among all one of the major advantage of biotechnology is to conserve the nature by replenishing its natural resources and saving energy in one form or the other.
Although modern biotechnology is a new concept yet the traditional have been used by humans for the past many decades. Products like yogurt, cheese, vinegar, alcoholic beverages etc are the result of this technology only. It is an effective tool for producing food, storing as well as preserving food.
Scope of Biotechnology
Scope of biotechnology is increasing with the more need for cheaper but the quality varieties. This includes
Stem cell techniques
Enzyme engineering and technology
New DNA technologies
Rational drug design
The main branch of this study is Genetic Engineering that is done on plants, animals (especially marine animals) and microbes. In this the DNA is transformed so that animal, plant or microbe start doing the things that are expected. Numerous drugs and vaccines are produced by genetically modified microbes. This include insulin, erythropoietin, and hepatitis-B vaccine. Some of the plants are so modified that they produce their own pesticide and resistant to weedicides.
Then Gene Therapy is applied to the human beings who suffer from any genetic disorder. By applying this they can lead a normal life.
Both plant and animal cells are subjected to Tissue Culture. A plant can be grown from a single cell in a lab through tissue culture. Tissue culture is actually used for micro propagation of exotic material and used to produce useful compounds.
Also some plants with biotechnology gets the photosynthetic efficiency through which they start producing more biomass from the same amount of light and other associated things.
Biotechnology is seeing major growth in India and so there are great number of biotechnology jobs in India. There is a great network of research laboratories in India along with rich agriculture, biodiversity, abundant sunshine with skilled and trained manpower. As it is quiet a new field yet there are many hidden and stored scopes of biotechnology in India that are yet to be explored.